Vishnu and Lakshmi with his Avatars and Attendants
11th century
Asia: India, Himāchal Pradesh
On View

This elaborate altarpiece is one of the most impressive Hindu bronzes to survive from the Pratihara Dynasty (805–1036) of north-central India. Vishnu affectionately embraces his wife Lakshmi, and the divine couple is surrounded by his various avatars or incarnations. The supreme form of Vishnu is placed at the peak of the arch, in which he sits in deep mediation holding his primary attributes the club and wheel.


  • Title: Vishnu and Lakshmi with his Avatars and Attendants
  • Date: 11th century
  • Medium: Copper alloy
  • Dimensions: 23-1/4 x 16-3/4 x 5 in. (59.1 x 42.5 x 12.7 cm)
  • Credit Line: The Norton Simon Foundation
  • Accession Number: F.1972.48.1.S
  • Copyright: © The Norton Simon Foundation

Object Information

Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure

  • Art Institute of Chicago, 2003-04-05 to 2003-08-17

Painting and Sculpture from Nepal, Tibet and Northwest India

  • Norton Simon Museum, 1994-09-22 to 1997-06-01
  • Dye III, Joseph M., Asian Art: Selections from the Norton Simon Museum, 1988, fig. 10 p. 28
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure, 2003, no. 88 pp. 138-139
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, Volume 2: Art from the Himalayas & China, 2003, no. 12 pp. 15, 44-45, 261
  • Campbell, Sara, Collector Without Walls: Norton Simon and His Hunt for the Best, 2010, cat. 883 p. 348
  • Nalin, David R., Analysis of A Pala-Sena Metal Durga Mahisashuramardini Shrine, 2020, Fig. 9 pp. 16-27, p. 24 (ill.)
Audio Tour
English | Español
Audio Tour Transcript
English | Español
English | Español
Transcripción de Audioguía
English | Español

Image reproduction permission may be granted for scholarly or arts related commercial use. All image requests, regardless of their intended purpose, should be submitted via the reproduction request form.

Images may be protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights. Additional permission may be required.

Approved requests for the reproduction of an image will receive a contract detailing all fees and conditions of use of the image. Upon receipt of both the signed contract and full payment, the Office of Rights and Reproductions will provide the image. A complimentary copy of the published material must be provided to the Norton Simon Museum.

Reproduction Request Form