Buddha Shakyamuni and Adorants on Mount Meru
c. 700
Asia: India, State of Jammu and Kashmir
On View

This masterpiece of Indian metal sculpture is one of the most sumptuous Buddhist altarpieces to have survived from Kashmir. Buddha Shakyamuni sits in the meditation posture on a thick cushion covered with lavish carpets. Beneath him is a rocky formation divided into three realms—animal, human and celestial—from bottom to top. The probable intent is to represent the historical Buddha as a transcendental figure seated on the cosmic mountain Meru, which is considered to be the center of the universe.


  • Title: Buddha Shakyamuni and Adorants on Mount Meru
  • Date: c. 700
  • Medium: Bronze with silver and copper inlay
  • Dimensions: 13-1/4 x 9-1/2 x 4-3/4 in. (33.7 x 24.1 x 12.1 cm)
  • Credit Line: The Norton Simon Foundation
  • Accession Number: F.1972.48.2.S
  • Copyright: © The Norton Simon Foundation

Object Information

Painting and Sculpture from Nepal, Tibet and Northwest India

  • Norton Simon Museum, 1994-09-22 to 1997-06-01
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  • Rademacher, Cay, GEO EPOCHE: Das Magazin fur Geschichte, p. 30
  • Casey, Jane, Arts of Asia,no. 12 p. 110
  • Twist, Rebecca L., Patronage, Devotion and Politics: A Buddhological Study of the Patola Sahi Dynasty's Visual Record,2010, Fig A.19 p. 272
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, Volume 2: Art from the Himalayas & China,no. 2 pp. 13, 30-33, 34, 36, 44
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Marg,fig. 15 p, 61, 67, 73
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, The Great Tradition: Indian Bronze Masterpieces,fig. 4 p. 92
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts,fig. 5 pp. 731, 733
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, American Collectors of Asian Art,fig. 15 pp. 125, 131, 137
  • Campbell, Sara, Collector Without Walls: Norton Simon and His Hunt for the Best,2010, cat. 884 p. 348
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Bronzes of Kashmir,no. 22 p. 92
  • Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes,pl. 6, no. 16A pp. 98, 118
  • Fisher, Robert E., Asian Art: Selections from the Norton Simon Museum,fig. 1 pp. 49-50
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