Buddha Shakyamuni and Adorants on Mount Meru
c. 700
Asia: India, Kashmir
On View

This masterpiece of Indian metal sculpture is one of the most sumptuous Buddhist altarpieces to have survived from Kashmir. Buddha Shakyamuni sits in the meditation posture on a thick cushion covered with lavish carpets. Beneath him is a rocky formation divided into three realms—animal, human and celestial—from bottom to top. The probable intent is to represent the historical Buddha as a transcendental figure seated on the cosmic mountain Meru, which is considered to be the center of the universe.


  • Title: Buddha Shakyamuni and Adorants on Mount Meru
  • Date: c. 700
  • Medium: Bronze with silver and copper inlay
  • Dimensions: 13-1/4 x 9-1/2 x 4-3/4 in. (33.7 x 24.1 x 12.1 cm)
  • Credit Line: The Norton Simon Foundation
  • Accession Number: F.1972.48.2.S
  • Copyright: © The Norton Simon Foundation

Object Information

Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure

  • Art Institute of Chicago, 2003-04-05 to 2003-08-17

In the Land of Snow: Buddhist Art of the Himalayas

  • Norton Simon Museum, 2014-03-28 to 2014-08-25

Painting and Sculpture from Nepal, Tibet and Northwest India

  • Norton Simon Museum, 1994-09-22 to 1997-06-01
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Marg, fig. 15 p, 61, 67, 73
  • Knoke, Christine, Minerva, fig. 8 p. 28
  • Fisher, Robert E., Asian Art: Selections from the Norton Simon Museum, fig. 1 pp. 49-50
  • Casey, Jane, Arts of Asia, no. 12 p. 110
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 1973, fig. 5 pp. 731, 733
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Bronzes of Kashmir, 1975, no. 22 p. 92
  • Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, 1981, pl. 6, no. 16A pp. 98, 118
  • Neven, A.; M. Postel and K. Mankodi, Antiquities of Himachal, 1985, fig. 104
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, American Collectors of Asian Art, 1986, fig. 15 pp. 125, 131, 137
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, The Great Tradition: Indian Bronze Masterpieces, 1988, fig. 4 p. 92
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, Volume 2: Art from the Himalayas & China, 2003, no. 2 pp. 13, 30-33, 34, 36, 44
  • Pal, Pratapaditya, Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure, 2003, fig. 3 (detail), no. 62 pp. 17, 104-105
  • Marg, 2004, fig. 4 p. 59
  • Rademacher, Cay, GEO EPOCHE: Das Magazin fur Geschichte, 2007, p. 30
  • Twist, Rebecca L., Patronage, Devotion and Politics: A Buddhological Study of the Patola Sahi Dynasty's Visual Record, 2010, Fig A.19 p. 272
  • Campbell, Sara, Collector Without Walls: Norton Simon and His Hunt for the Best, 2010, cat. 884 p. 348
  • Meher McArthur, Highlights of Buddhist Art at the Norton Simon Museum, 2018,
  • Various; (Cat. No. 10 by Christian Luczanits), Himalayan Art in 108 Objects, 2023, No. 10 pp. 64-67, p. 64 (ill.), cover
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