Buddha Shakyamuni and Adorants on Mount Meru
c. 700
India: Kashmir
On View

This masterpiece of Indian metal sculpture is one of the most sumptuous Buddhist altarpieces to have survived from Kashmir. Buddha Shakyamuni sits in the meditation posture on a thick cushion covered with lavish carpets. Beneath him is a rocky formation divided into three realms—animal, human and celestial—from bottom to top. The probable intent is to represent the historical Buddha as a transcendental figure seated on the cosmic mountain Meru, which is considered to be the center of the universe.


  • Title: Buddha Shakyamuni and Adorants on Mount Meru
  • Date: c. 700
  • Medium: Bronze with silver and copper inlay
  • Dimensions: 13-1/4 x 9-1/2 x 4-3/4 in. (33.7 x 24.1 x 12.1 cm)
  • Credit Line: The Norton Simon Foundation
  • Accession Number: F.1972.48.2.S
  • Copyright: © The Norton Simon Foundation

Object Information

Painting and Sculpture from Nepal, Tibet and Northwest India

  • Norton Simon Museum, 1994-09-22 to 1997-06-01
Pal, Pratapaditya, Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure, fig. 3 (detail), no. 62 pp. 17, 104-105
Rademacher, Cay, GEO EPOCHE: Das Magazin fur Geschichte, p. 30
Casey, Jane, Arts of Asia, no. 12 p. 110
Twist, Rebecca L., Patronage, Devotion and Politics: A Buddhological Study of the Patola Sahi Dynasty's Visual Record, Fig A.19 p. 272
Pal, Pratapaditya, Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, Volume 2: Art from the Himalayas & China, no. 2 pp. 13, 30-33, 34, 36, 44
Pal, Pratapaditya, Marg, fig. 15 p, 61, 67, 73
Pal, Pratapaditya, The Great Tradition: Indian Bronze Masterpieces, fig. 4 p. 92
Pal, Pratapaditya, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, fig. 5 pp. 731, 733
Pal, Pratapaditya, American Collectors of Asian Art, fig. 15 pp. 125, 131, 137
Campbell, Sara, Collector Without Walls: Norton Simon and His Hunt for the Best, cat. 884 p. 348
Pal, Pratapaditya, Bronzes of Kashmir, no. 22 p. 92
Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, pl. 6, no. 16A pp. 98, 118
Fisher, Robert E., Asian Art: Selections from the Norton Simon Museum, fig. 1 pp. 49-50
Neven, A.; M. Postel and K. Mankodi, Antiquities of Himachal, fig. 104
Knoke, Christine, Minerva, fig. 8 p. 28
Meher McArthur, Highlights of Buddhist Art at the Norton Simon Museum,
Marg, fig. 4 p. 59
Audio Tour
English | Español
Audio Tour Transcript
English | Español
English | Español
Transcripción de Audioguía
English | Español

Image reproduction permission may be granted for scholarly or arts related commercial use. All image requests, regardless of their intended purpose, should be submitted via the reproduction request form.

Images may be protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights. Additional permission may be required.

Approved requests for the reproduction of an image will receive a contract detailing all fees and conditions of use of the image. Upon receipt of both the signed contract and full payment, the Office of Rights and Reproductions will provide the image. A complimentary copy of the published material must be provided to the Norton Simon Museum.

Reproduction Request Form