Women Ironing
Begun c.1875-1876; reworked c.1882-1886
Edgar Degas (French, 1834-1917)
On View

Once a private, domestic chore, laundry was big business in nineteenth-century Paris, where it employed roughly twenty-five percent of the female workforce. Steamy, dark storefronts, often open to the sidewalk, gave passersby a glimpse of women ironing, bare-armed in the heat. Born into an aristocratic family, Degas was fascinated by working women and by the increasingly porous distinctions between private and public, domestic and commercial in the modern city. His paintings of laundresses—none finer than the present example—reflect this fascination. Probably begun in the 1870s and reworked about a decade later, this picture suggests the brutalizing effects of hard labor. The women hunch, yawn, and drink over a pile of starched shirts, yet the peculiar delicacy of Degas’s touch—mimicking, in the flesh tones, his own work in pastels—reminds us of the laundresses’ youth and femininity.

Details

  • Artist Name: Edgar Degas (French, 1834-1917)
  • Title: Women Ironing
  • Date: Begun c.1875-1876; reworked c.1882-1886
  • Medium: Oil on canvas
  • Dimensions: 32-1/4 x 29-3/4 in. (81.9 x 75.5 cm)
  • Credit Line: Norton Simon Art Foundation
  • Accession Number: M.1971.3.P/M.1979.17.P
  • Copyright: © Norton Simon Art Foundation

Object Information

The artist, sold 18 October 1902, as Les deux blanchisseuses, 1882, for Fr. 15,000 to;
[Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock no. 7184, sold 18 November 1902, for Ff 20,000, to];
Oscar Schmitz (1861-1933), Dresden, and Switzerland (1931-1933);
Schmitz heirs (Edouard Schmitz), still in 1935;
[Wildenstein Galleries, Paris, London and New York by 1936];
?Edith Dunn (Mrs. Alfred Chester) Beatty (d. 1952), by 1953 inheritance to;
Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875-1968), London and Dublin, consigned 30 December 1958 to;
[Arthur Tooth & Sons, London; sold 7 April 1959 to];
Lucille Ellis, Norton and Robert Ellis Simon, in 1969 after Robert Simon's death to;
Norton Simon and The Norton Simon Foundation, 1971 to;
Norton Simon gave his half interest to NSAF;
Norton Simon Art Foundation and Norton Simon Foundation;
Norton Simon Foundation sold its 1/2 interest to;
Norton Simon Art Foundation.

Three Centuries of French Art: Selections from The Norton Simon, Inc. Museum of Art and the Norton Simon Foundation

  • California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 1974-10-19 to 1976-06-15
Waldmann, Emil, Die Kunst des Realismus und des Impressionismus im 19. Jahrhundert, pp. 97, 484, 632
Vollard, Ambroise, Degas: An Intimate Portrait, p. 39
Fechter, P., Kunst und Kunstler, p. 22
Campbell, Sara, Collector Without Walls: Norton Simon and His Hunt for the Best, cat. 78 p. 254
Dunlop, Ian, Degas, color pl. 99 p. 109
Kennedy, Brian P., Irish Arts Review, no. 16 pp. 45, 48, 51
Russell, John, The Meanings of Modern Art, pp. 28, 29
Waldmann, Emil, Documents, p. 320
Love, R. H., Theodore Earl Butler: Emergence from Monet's Shadow, p. 141
Hourticq, Louis, Art et Décoration, pp. 105-106
Lipton, Eunice, Art History, fig. 37 pp. 295-313
Lemoisne, Paul-André, Degas et son oeuvre, no. 687 p. 389
Hüttinger, Eduard, Degas, p. 46
Mauclair, Camille, Degas, pp. 110, 167
Boggs, Jean Sutherland, et al., Degas, fig. 233 pp. 426-428
Scheffler, Karl, Kunst und Kunstler, pp. 178-186
Love, R. H., Cassatt: The Independent, pl. 19 p. 51
Russoli, Franco; and Fiorella Minervino, L'opera completa di Degas, no. 596
Barnett, Vivian Endicott, The Guggenheim Museum, Justin K. Thannhauser Collection, pp. 131-132
Dunlop, R. O., The Artist, p. 76
Druick, Douglas, Renoir, fig. 17 p. 37
Vollard, Ambroise, Degas, opp. p. 114
Silverman, R., LearningAbout Art: a Practical Approach, p. 117-119
Kendall, Richard, Degas by Himself, p. 164
Shimada, Norio, The History of Impressionism, p. 301
Steadman, David W., Art Journal, pp. cover, 38
Masterpieces from the Norton Simon Museum, p. 149
Dormoy, Marie, L'Amour de l'Art, pp. 342, 343
The French Impressionists in Southern California: Paintings, Sculptures, and Prints in Public Collections. A Guidebook and Catalogue,
Clark, Kenneth, The Romantic Rebellion: Romantic versus Classic Art, no. 251 p. 323
Mancoff, Debra, Degas' Working Women, p. 46
Rewald, John, The History of Impressionism, p. 466
Steadman, David W., The Connoisseur, fig. 2 pp. 220-222
Schürer, O., Deutsche Kunst un Dekoration, p. 271
Kelder, D., The Great Book of Post-Impressionism, fig. 35
Lipton, Eunice, Looking into Degas: Uneasy Images of Women and Modern Life, p. 142
Campbell, Sara et al., Degas in the Norton Simon Museum, Fig. 7 p. 109
Daval, J.-L., Journal de l'art moderne, p. 84
Manson, James B., The Life and Work of Edgar Degas, p. 52
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Additional Artwork by Artist

Actress in Her Dressing Room Edgar Degas c. 1875-1880 and c. 1895-1905
After the Bath Edgar Degas c. 1890-1893 (dated in error by another hand: 1885)
Autograph Letter to Durand-Ruel Edgar Degas n.d.

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